Ameer ul Mu' mineen Hazrat Umar Farooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu]

Famous Praises of Prophet Muhammad [Peace be upon Him] 
regarding Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu]

"If there were to be a Prophet after me, he would have been Umar." –

"Amongst the nations before your time, there have been inspired people (who were not Prophets), and if there is one amongst my Ummah, he is Umar". –
(Bukhari and Muslim)

The period of Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] Khilafat undoubtedly is the
 Golden Age of Islam 
 in every respect.
He was a man of extraordinary genius who not only molded the destiny of the nation but made history of his own.

He followed the footsteps of our Beloved Prophet [Peace be upon him]to the fullest extent. It was  Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] under whose rule Islam became an international power and the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine crumbled before the army of Islam.
Within ten years of his Glorious rule, the whole of the Persian Empire, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and a part of Turkey came under the banner of Islam and the nations entered the fold of Islam.
He was not only a conqueror but also an exemplary administrator who originated an efficient system of administration, and thus he was the real founder of political system of Islam. He enforced Divine Law (Shari'ah) as the code of a newly formed International Islamic State; he safeguarded the internal safety by introducing the police force: he gave stipends to the poor; he constructed cantonments and forts for the safety of Islamic armies; he founded new cities for the growth of Islamic culture and civilization; he improved agriculture and economics of the Islamic State; he founded the educational system in an Islamic State; in brief he was the founder of a great Islamic State.

He was the son of Khattab and is famous in Islamic history as "Al Farooq" or "One who distinguishes between Right and Wrong." His acceptance of Islam is also very famous.

Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] belonged to the Adi family of Quraish tribe. In the 8th generation, his lineage joins with the Prophet Muhammad [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam].
He was born in 583 A.C., about forty years before the great Hijrah. The early life of Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] is not known in detail. In his youth he was a famous wrestler and orator, and a spirited person. He was one among the few people in Makkah who knew how to read and write. His main occupation was business.
When the Rasool ul laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam] recieved the revelation and invited people to Islam, Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] initially became the sworn opponent of Islam and the Prophet, and did not hesitate to harm the Muslims at every opportunity.

Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu’s] acceptance of Islam

It was the sixth year of Rasoolal Laah's [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam] mission when the leaders of Quraish called a meeting and asked for volunteers for the assassination of Rasoolul Laah’s [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  . Hazrat Umar[Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] offered himself for this job and everybody in the meeting exclaimed that he was the right person for it.
While he was on his way, with a sword in his hand, he met Hazrat Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas who enquired of him about where he was going. Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] told him that he was going to murder Rasoolal Laah’s [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  . After some discussion Hazrat Sa'd said, "You had better take care of your own family first. Your sister and brother-in-law both have accepted Islam".
Hearing this, Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] changed his direction and went straight to his sister's house. When Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] knocked at the door, they were being taught the Holy Qur'an by Hazrat Khabbab. His sister Fatima was frightened on hearing Hazrat Umar’s [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] voice and tried to hide the portion of the Holy Qur'aan she was reciting. When Hazrat Umar entered the house he enquired about their Islam and on finding that they had accepted Islam, he first fell upon his brother-in-law and beat him severely. When his sister intervened he smote her so violently on her face that it bled profusely. On this his sister burst out: "Do whatever you like, we are determined to die as Muslims".

When Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] saw his sister bleeding, he cooled down and felt ashamed. He loved his sister Fatima very much but could not tolerate her conversion to Islam. However, deeply moved, Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] asked her to show the pages on which the Holy Qur'aan was written. But she was, after all, Hazrat Umar’s sister and told him straight, "You cannot touch it unless you take a bath and make yourself clean".

He then took a bath and read the scripts. It was the beginning of Soorah Ta Ha (Chapter 20 of the Holy Qur'aan). Finally he came to the verse:
"Lo! I even I, am Allaah, there is no god save Me. So serve Me and establish Salaat for My remembrance."
(Holy Qur’aan - 20:14)
At this, Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] exclaimed, "Surely this is the Word of Allaah. Take me to Muhammad ".[Peace Be upon Him]
On hearing this Hazrat Khabbab , who had hidden himself in the house, came out from inside and said, 
"O Umar! Glad tidings for you. It seems that the prayer of the Rasoolul Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  which he said last night has been answered in your favour. 

He prayed to Allaah Almighty:

 "O Allaah, strengthen Islam with either Umar bin Khattab or Umar bin Hisham, whomsoever Thou pleaseth".
Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] then went to see the Prophet [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]. On seeing him,he asked him, "Umar! What brings you here”?

 He said, 
"I am here to accept Islam".
Hearing this the Muslims shouted with joy, "Allahu Akbar! (Allah is the Greatest)" and the sound echoed through the air of Makaah.
As a matter of fact, Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] Umar’s conversion to Islam was a terrible blow to the morale of the disbelievers. Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas'ud, [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], a great Companion, says, "Hazrat Umar's conversion to Islam was a great triumph, his emigration to Madinah a tremendous reinforcement and his accession to Caliphate a great blessing for the Muslims".

Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] gets the title of Al-Farooq!

The conversion of Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] strengthened Islam.
Before this, Muslims had lived in constant fear of the disbelievers, and most of them were concealing their faith. The Muslims were now able to offer their Salat publicly. When Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] became a Muslim, he declared his faith openly before the Quraish chiefs. Though they stared at him, they could not do any harm to him. Then once he had been granted permission from Rasoolul Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam], he led a party of the Muslims to the Kabah to offer Salat. Hazrat Hamza [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], who had accepted Islam a few days before Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], carried another party of the Muslims to Kabaah.
When all the Muslims gathered in the Kabaah, they offered their Salat in congregation. Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  led this, and it was the first public Salat in the history of Islam. For this courageous and bold action of Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  gave him the title of al-Farooq i.e., the one who makes a distinction between the right (haqq) and the wrong (batil).

Migration to Madinah

When the Muslims were ordered to migrate to Madinah, most of them left Makkah quietly and in secret, but Hazrat Umar[Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu],  declared it openly.

He put on his armour and first went to the Kabaah. After performing the Salat, he announced loudly: "I am migrating to Madinah. If anyone wants to check me, let him come out. I am sure that his mother would cry for his life".
There was no man in Makkah to accept the challenge of Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu]. Then he migrated to Madinah boldly.

Hazrat Umar's [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu],  services to Islam

Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], had great love for Allaah Almighty and Rasoolal Laah’s [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  . He participated in almost all the big battles: Badr, Uhud, Ahzab, Khaibar, Hunain etc. In the expedition of Tabuk, he gave half of his wealth in the path of Allaah Taa’laa.
He was next to Hazrat Abu Bakr [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], in the sacrifice of his belongings for the cause of Allaah Kareem.

Rasoolal Laah also had a deep love for him. Once he remarked, "Were a prophet to come after me, he would have been Umar".
In another Hadees mentioned in Bukhari, Hazrat Abu Hurairah [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], narrated that Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  said, "In Banee Isra'eel (Israelites), there were people who were not Prophets but talked to Allaah Almighty. Were anyone in my Ummah like those persons, he would be Umar".

The demise of Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  was a great shock to him, and he could not believe it until Hazrat Abu Bakr [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], reminded him of a clear verse of the Holy Qur'aan on the subject. He then went to the Council Hall along with Hazrat Abu Bakr [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], where the people of Madinah had assembled to select the First Caliph [Khaleefah].
Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu], was the first person to pledge loyalty (Bai'at) at the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr, and then helped him throughout the duration of his rule.
Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] the second Khaleefah of Islam

During Hazrat Abu Bakr's [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] illness he consulted the people about the next Khaleefah, and then gave his decision in favor of Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] who took the charge of Khilaafat after the death of Hazrat Abu Bakr [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] on 22nd of Jamadi us Saani 13 A.H. (23rd August 634 AC).
Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] followed entirely the ways of Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  and the policy of his predecessor, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique,[Radiyal Laahu Anhu] with his characteristic zeal and vigor. It was his strict adherence to the Sunnah of Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  which helped him to subdue the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine.

AS CALIPH [Khaleefah]

Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] was a very brave and straight-forward person. He was tough and uncompromising in Islamic principles. He was a great and talented ruler. During his Khilaafat, vast areas of the Roman and Persian empires and the whole of Egypt were brought under Islamic rule. He was also a gifted orator. He was very concerned for the welfare of the Muslims. He left a honorable legacy for Muslims after him. The Holy Qur’aan was given to him by Saiyyidina Abu Bakr [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]  for safe-keeping.

In a short space of 10 years, Saiyyidina Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] had been well-known for his outstanding achievements and reforms in Islam. Some of these reforms were:-
1. He established the "Baitul Maal" (People's treasury for the state and public).
2. Judicial courts of Justice were set in the country. Judges and Magistrates handled all cases.
3. Establishment of an army headquarters for the defence of the country.
4. Construction of roads and canals.
5. Schools were established. Salaries for Imaams, Mu'azzins and Ustaad’s were organized.
6. Masjids were improved and built in Makkaah Mukarramah and Madinah tul Munawwarah. This included facilities for the Haaji’s.
7. Police Stations and prisons were built.
8. Establishment of the first Islamic Lunar calendar beginning from the Hijrah.
9. Proper weights and measures introduced.
10. Population census established.
11. Built orphanages and welfare homes.
12. Established proper punishment system and banned slavery.


Simplicity and devotion were the main characters of Saiyyidina Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] He used to wear clothes that had many patches and yet received Governors, convoys and diplomats. He took just enough allowance from the State to have a simple meal and wear simple clothes. At times he was very poor. He used to visit the old people and sick and even do their house work. He used to visit the houses of the soldiers and inquire about their families. He stayed awake at night in Salaah and often kept Fast. He always supported and upheld the cause of Islam, with his wisdom, energy, dynamism, bravery and little wealth.

Character and Piety
He was extremely pious and God-fearing. His success lay in two things: fear of Allaah Taa’laa and his love for Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  .

He never used even oil from the Baitul Mal (Public Treasury) to burn a lamp at night for his personal needs. Whenever he finished the official work he put off the lamp. He used to patrol in the city at night to find out the needs and requirements, and conditions of the people.
He did not hesitate to take his wife to work as a midwife for a poor woman. The salary he got from the Baitul Mal was so low that it was hardly enough for him and his family's needs. When some of the eminent Muslims requested him to increase the amount he said, "Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  has left a standard by his personal example. I must follow him".

Hazrat  Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]  was one of the most just rulers in Islamic History. All the citizens, including the Khaleefa himself, were equal before law.
Once he appeared before a court in Madinah to clarify his position against a complaint. The Qazi (judge) wanted to stand in his honor, but he did not allow him to do so, so that there would be no distinction between him and an ordinary person before Law.
He was really the founder of the modern democratic system.
In short, he was a perfect example of an ideal character, and was the greatest Khaleefah of Islam after Hazrat Abu Bakr [Radiyal Laahu Anhu].
He selflessly devoted his whole energy for the cause of Islam and the Muslim world will always be indebted to him for his great achievements.
Hazrat Umar as a Great Scholar
Before the advent of Islam there was no tradition in Arabia of reading or writing. There were only seventeen people amongst the Quraish who could read or write at the time when Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam] started to receive Divine revelations.
Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] was one of those seventeen persons. His writing and lectures are still found in some old books.

The first address he gave as a Caliph [Khaleefah] was:

"O Allaah Kareem, I am strict, make me soft. I am weak, give me power. The Arabs are like refractory camels, I will endeavor to bring them to the straight path."
He was also interested in poetry and sometimes he composed verses. Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]  was one of the most fluent of the Quraish in language.
Arabic-knowing persons can appreciate the fluency of his writings and addresses. Many of his sayings became aphorisms of literature.

He was a great Jurist and Theologian of Islam. Because of the fear of making any mistake, he did not quote many Ahadees even though he was fully conversant with them. He never allowed a person to quote any Hadees which was not well known without producing any at testator in support of it.
If somebody quoted a Hadees before him which he had never heard, he at once asked him to bring a witness; failing which he would be punished.
He was expert in deriving laws from the Holy Qur'aan and the Hadees. A full volume could be complied out of the verdicts and judgment’s given by Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]. As a matter of fact he opened a new door of Ijtihad (disciplined judgments of a jurist) in the history of Islamic Law and Jurisprudence, and settled a number of disputable cases during his Khilaafat.

Preaching of Islam

As the viceroy of Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  , his foremost duty was to spread and preach Islam. As mentioned above, the aim of various battles and wars was to clear the way for the Muslims for preaching Islam.
Whenever any army had to attack a place, they had to call the inhabitants of the place to Islam. Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] was very strict in this respect and he had given standing orders to the commanders not to start war unless they had first invited the people to Islam. If they accepted it, there was no question of war and if they did not, then the war was fought only with those who were not giving a free hand to Muslims to preach the Right Path.
No person was ever forced to forsake his own faith and accept Islam.
The method adopted to preach Islam was demonstration by actual practice. For this purpose he ordered Muslims to establish their own quarters and present the practical shape of Islam before the population. Seeing the truthful way, the inhabitants of the place were attracted towards Islam. No soldier was allowed to take any property or anything by force from the conquered people.
Because of fair treatment by the Muslims, sometimes the whole army of the enemy accepted Islam.
After the battle of Qadisiya, a battalion of four thousand Persians accepted Islam. After the victory of Jalula, the chiefs of the place entered the folds of Islam along with the inhabitants. A commander of the army of Yadzgird, named Siyah accepted Islam with his battalion during a battle in Persia. All the inhabitants of the town of Bulhat in Egypt accepted Islam at one time without the use of any force only by seeing the piety of the Muslims. A rich merchant and the chief of a place in Egypt, named Shata, accepted Islam with all the inhabitants of the place only after hearing about the character and piety of Muslims at the time when Muslims had not even reached that place.
These are a few examples to show how Islam spread because of the character of Muslims at that time.
Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]  was very strict in ensuring that no Muslims forced any non-Muslim to accept Islam. Through his advice, letters and addresses, he made it clear to all the Muslims that they had to adhere to the ways of Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  , which was the only method to preach Islam.
Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] - the Pioneer of Islamic democracy

Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] was the pioneer of modern civilization who formed a state based upon the Islamic democratic system, the system which was incorporated in the West as late as 19th and 20th centuries.
He was the greatest democratic administrator whose example is unparalleled not only in the history of Islam but also in the history of modern civilization. A vast part of the Middle East, Persian Empire and Byzantium, was conquered during the ten years of his Khilaafat which he consolidated into a state governed by Islam i.e. laws.

The constitution of Islamic Khilaafat during the time of Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] was based entirely on the Islamic democratic system. All matters were decided after consultation with the Shura (the council of advisors).
He remarked, "It is essential for a Khaleefah to consult his Shura." Once he said, "I do not desire that you may follow anything that arises from my caprice".
Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]  had clearly stated on various occasions that he should be obeyed as long as he was obeying Allaah Kareem and Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  .

Muslims and non-Muslims were treated alike. Although the Arab peninsula was declared to be purely an Islamic State, his attitude towards the non-Muslims was very tolerant. He allowed the Jews and the Christians, living in the Peninsula, to stay there if they so wished and nobody would interfere in their religious affairs. To those who desired to migrate he ensured a safe journey up to the borders. Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] also gave compensation for their properties and other facilities.

Introduction of the Islamic calendar

For the first time in the history of Islam, Islamic calendar was introduced in the present form by Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu].
The date of start of this calendar was fixed as the date of the Hijrah (migration) of Rasoolal Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  . Thus the calendar is also known as the Hijrah Calendar.

Martyrdom of Hazrat Farooq-e-Azam [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]

In 23 A.H., when Hazrat Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] returned to Madinah from Hajj, he raised his hands and prayed:
"O Allaah ! I am advanced in years, my bones are weary, my powers are declining, and the people for whom I am responsible have spread far and wide. Summon me back to Thyself, my lord!"
A Persian non-Muslim, named Firoz and nicknamed "Abu Lulu," complained to Saiyyidina Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]  about his master, Saiyyidina Mughirah bin Shuba [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] who imposed tax on him. Saiyyidina Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] told Firoz that the tax was reasonable. This made Firoz angry.

The next day, during the Fajr Salaah, he stabbed Saiyyidina Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] in the back, severely wounding the Caliph. Saiyyidina Umar [Radiyal Laahu Anhu] passed away 3 days later in 23 A.H. He was 63 years old. He ruled the Islamic State for 10 years, 6 months and 4 days.

Before his death, the Muslims asked him about his successor and he appointed a panel of six persons; Hazrat Usmaan, Hazrat Zubair,  Hazrat Talhaa,  Hazrat Sa'd bin Waqqas and  Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf [Ridwaan ul laah Ajmaien] to select a Khalifah from amongst them within three days after him.
He requested Hazrat Aishaa Sideeqaa [Radiyal Laahu Anha] for permission for his burial beside Rasoolul Laah [Sallal Laahu Alaiehi Wasalam]  , just as Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]   expressed the same wish. Though she had reserved that place for herself, on Hazrat Umar's [Radiyal Laahu Anhu]  request she gave it to him and that is where he was buried.

 Hazrat Umar Faarooq [Radiyal Laahu 'Anhu] left this mundane on Ist Muharram

Share To:


Post A Comment: